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Tesla autopilots fail, their batteries blow up and the whole company is rife with corruption. How can Tesla still be alive unless Tesla shareholder's Nancy Pelosi and Dianne Feinstein are working with their stock-broker: Goldman Sachs, to pump the stock?

Not only that but Musk has been proven to have covered up the deadly dangers of his lithium ion batteries that the feds had proven to be deadly dangers:

X-rays uncover a hidden defect in Elon Musk Tesla Motors batteries that will cause deadly lithium-ion battery fires and explosions

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
X-rays uncover a hidden property that leads to failure in a lithium-ion battery material
The lithium-ion batteries commonly used to power electric buses and cordless tools and vacuum cleaners are often made up of billions of nanoparticles of lithium iron phosphate, the battery material investigated in this paper. The material more

Over the past three decades, lithium-ion batteries, rechargeable batteries that move lithium ions back and forth to charge and discharge, have enabled smaller devices that juice up faster and last longer.


Now, X-ray experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that the pathways lithium ions take through a common  material are more complex than previously thought. The results correct more than two decades worth of assumptions about the material and will help improve battery design, potentially leading to a new generation of lithium-ion batteries.

An international team of researchers, led by William Chueh, a faculty scientist at SLAC's Stanford Institute for Materials & Energy Sciences and a Stanford materials science professor, published these findings today in Nature Materials.

"Before, it was kind of like a black box," said Martin Bazant, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another leader of the study. "You could see that the material worked pretty well and certain additives seemed to help, but you couldn't tell exactly where the lithium ions go in every step of the process. You could only try to develop a theory and work backwards from measurements. With new instruments and measurement techniques, we're starting to have a more rigorous scientific understanding of how these things actually work."

The 'popcorn effect'

Anyone who has ridden in an electric bus, worked with a power tool or used a cordless vacuum has likely reaped the benefits of the battery material they studied, . It can also be used for the start-stop feature in cars with internal combustion engines and storage for wind and solar power in electrical grids. Better understanding of this material and others like it could lead to faster-charging, longer-lasting and more durable batteries. But until recently, researchers could only guess at the mechanisms that allow it to work.

When lithium-ion batteries charge and discharge, the lithium ions flow from a liquid solution into a solid reservoir. But once in the solid, the lithium can rearrange itself, sometimes causing the material to split into two distinct phases, much as oil and water separate when mixed together. This causes what Chueh refers to as a "popcorn effect." The ions clump together into hot spots that end up shortening the battery lifetime.


In this study, researchers used two X-ray techniques to explore the inner workings of lithium-ion batteries. At SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) they bounced X-rays off a sample of lithium iron phosphate to reveal its atomic and electronic structure, giving them a sense of how the lithium ions were moving about in the material. At Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source (ALS), they used X-ray microscopy to magnify the process, allowing them to map how the concentration of lithium changes over time.

Swimming upstream

Previously, researchers thought that lithium iron phosphate was a one-dimensional conductor, meaning lithium ions are only able to travel in one direction through the bulk of the material, like salmon swimming upstream.

But while sifting through their data, the researchers noticed that lithium was moving in a completely different direction on the surface of the material than one would expect based on previous models. It was as if someone had tossed a leaf onto the surface of the stream and discovered that the water was flowing in a completely different direction than the swimming salmon.

X-rays uncover a hidden property that leads to failure in a lithium-ion battery material
When lithium ions flow into the battery's solid electrode -- illustrated here in hexagonal slices -- the lithium can rearrange itself, causing the ions to clump together into hot spots that end up shortening the battery lifetime. Credit: Stanford University/3Dgraphic

They worked with Saiful Islam, a chemistry professor at the University of Bath, UK, to develop computer models and simulations of the system. Those revealed that lithium ions moved in two additional directions on the surface of the material, making lithium iron phosphate a three-dimensional conductor.

"As it turns out, these extra pathways are problematic for the material, promoting the popcorn-like behavior that leads to its failure," Chueh said. "If lithium can be made to move more slowly on the surface, it will make the battery much more uniform. This is the key to developing higher performance and longer lasting batteries."

A new frontier in battery engineering

Even though lithium iron phosphate has been around for the past two decades, the ability to study it at the nanoscale and during battery operation wasn't possible until just a couple of years ago.

"This explains how such a crucial property of the material has gone unnoticed for so long," said Yiyang Li, who led the experimental work as a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow at Stanford and SLAC. "With new technologies, there are always new and interesting properties to be discovered about materials that make you think about them a little differently."

This work is one of the first papers to come out of a collaboration between Bazant, Chueh and several other scientists as part of a Toyota Research Institute-funded research center that utilizes theory and machine learning to design and interpret advanced experiments.

These most recent findings, Bazant said, create a more complex story that theorists and engineers are going to have to consider in future work.

"It further builds the argument that engineering the surfaces of -ion batteries is really the new frontier," he said. "We have already discovered and developed some of the best bulk materials. And we've seen that  are still progressing at a pretty remarkable pace: They keep getting better and better. This research is enabling the steady advancement of a tried technology that actually works. We're building on an important bit of knowledge that can be added to the toolkit of battery engineers as they try to develop better materials."

Spanning different scales

To follow up on this study, the researchers will continue to combine modeling, simulation and experiments to try to understand fundamental questions about battery performance at many different length and time scales with facilities such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source, or LCLS, where researchers will be able to probe single ionic hops that happen at timescales as fast as one trillionth of a second.

"One of the roadblocks to developing  battery technologies is the huge span of length and time scales involved," Chueh said. "Key processes can happen in a split second or over many years. The path forward requires mapping these processes at lengths that go from meters all the way down to the motion of atoms. At SLAC, we're studying battery at all of these scales. Combining that with modeling and experiment is really what made this understanding possible."

 Explore further: Polymer professor develops safer component for lithium batteries

More information: Fluid-enhanced surface diffusion controls intraparticle phase transformations, Nature Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-018-0168-4 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0168-4

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-09-x-rays-uncover-hidden-property-failure.html#jCp


Just to show you how deadly lithium ion batteries can be, you might lose your TV channels because of them as DirecTV races to decommission broken Boeing satellite before it's lithium ion batteries explode

Boeing satellite has the usual irreversible damage to it's lithium ion batteries, creating explosion risk.

Illustration of a satellite orbiting Earth.
Enlarge / Illustration—not the actual Boeing satellite used by DirecTV.
Getty Images | 3DSculptor

DirecTV is scrambling to move a broken Boeing satellite out of its standard orbit in order to limit the risk of "an accidental explosion."

As Space News reported today, DirecTV asked the Federal Communications Commission for a rules waiver so it can "conduct emergency operations to de-orbit the Spaceway-1 satellite," which is at risk of explosion because of damage to batteries. The 15-year-old Boeing 702HP satellite is in a geostationary orbit.

DirecTV, which is owned by AT&T, is coordinating with Intelsat on a plan to move Spaceway-1 into a new orbit. DirecTV already disabled the satellite's primary function, which is to provide backup Ka-band capacity in Alaska. The satellite can operate on power reserves from its solar panels, but that won't be possible during the coming eclipse season, DirecTV explained in its FCC filing:

In December, Spaceway-1 suffered a major anomaly that resulted in significant and irreversible thermal damage to its batteries. Boeing, the spacecraft manufacturer, concluded based on all available data that the batteries' cells cannot be guaranteed to withstand the pressures needed to support safe operation of the spacecraft in eclipse operations; rather, there is a significant risk that these battery cells could burst. As payload operations have been terminated, the spacecraft has had sufficient power margin to avoid use of the batteries during sunlight operations. However, use of the batteries during eclipse is unavoidable and there is no ability to isolate damaged battery cells. The risk of a catastrophic battery failure makes it urgent that Spaceway-1 be fully de-orbited and decommissioned prior to the February 25th start of eclipse season.

Not enough time to deplete fuel

Under the standard process for taking satellites out of their normal orbits, "Spaceway-1 would complete its end-of-life maneuvers and then discharge all remaining bipropellant prior to decommissioning the spacecraft," DirecTV wrote.

But because of the explosion risk, there isn't enough time to fully deplete the bipropellant. That's why DirecTV asked for a waiver from the rules.

"Waiver is appropriate in this case because grant would not undermine the purpose of the rule, which is to reduce the risk of accidental explosion," DirecTV wrote. The waiver "will reduce the potential for harm to other geostationary satellite operators," DirecTV said.

DirecTV said it intends to discharge as much fuel as possible before completing the move but that "the priority remains the complete decommissioning of the satellite prior to commencement of the spring eclipse season to limit the risk of an accidental explosion." In the time available, DirecTV said "it will be able to deplete only a nominal portion of the approximately 73kg of bipropellant remaining onboard Spaceway-1." Fully depleting the bipropellant would take two or three months.

"Delayed de-orbit maneuvers or prolonged propellant depletion strategies are not possible given the heightened likelihood of catastrophic failure of the Spaceway-1 satellite should the damaged battery be recharged," the filing said.

DirecTV and Intelsat "are exploring feasible alternatives" for satellite-tracking ground stations "that can maintain ground visibility as the satellite transits from its current orbital position."

"In the absence of additional ground station solutions, Spaceway-1 will first need to increase its eastward drift before turning around and completing a near-continuous burn until it reaches its disposal orbit," DirecTV said.

New orbit 300km above other satellites

DirecTV described its plan as "de-orbiting" and moving the satellite into a "disposal orbit," which would suggest bringing it closer to Earth and letting it burn up in the atmosphere. But the filing also says the new orbit will be "300km above the geostationary arc," which would make it a graveyard orbit. Assuming that's the case, Spaceway-1 would remain indefinitely in an orbit that's well above other geostationary satellites. We've asked AT&T for clarification on this point.

DirecTV asked for a 30-day waiver "beginning no later than January 20, 2020," so it may have already received permission and begun the operation, which is expected to take 21 days. We contacted DirecTV owner AT&T and the FCC about the status of the waiver request this morning and will update this article if we get any response.

DirecTV said that no customers were affected by the satellite problem, since it was just providing backup capacity. DirecTV said it "is currently exploring plans to relocate on-orbit assets to replace the backup capacity lost by the decommissioning of Spaceway-1."


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